There are approximately 370 million indigenous people in the world today, which can be divided into some 5,000 distinct peoples. Where they have managed to maintain control over their ancestral homelands is where we can still find intact ecosystems, clean water and the vast majority of the world’s biodiversity. That they are allowed to continue safeguarding their homelands is necessary not only for their continued existence as distinct peoples, but also to maintain global ecological and climatic stability.